Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Crm Comuncation Essays - Storm, Tornado, Wind, Supercell Crm Comuncation In dealing with weather there are many types which can seriously cause damage to people and communities. Especially in the aviation we as pilot have to take into account many consideration in preparing for a flight. For instance, thunderstorms, icing levels, winds aloft, and visibility all play major factors in preparing for a flight. But there are some weather phenomena that can be extremely dangerous to fly into. Hurricanes, wind shear, and tornadoes are just some of the major threatening systems that can cause serious damage to people and places. One of the most interesting systems is the tornado. So what is a tornado? A tornado is a violently rotating column of air, which is found below cumulonimbus clouds and is nature's most violent wind. A tornado is officially defined as an intense, rotating column of air extending from the base of a thunderstorm cloud to the ground. Wind speeds in tornadoes can vary from 72 to almost 300 mph. Fortunately, only 2 percent of all tornadoes have winds greater than 200 mph. When a tornado is seen and has not yet made contact to the surface this is what is called a funnel cloud. When a funnel cloud touches the ground, it becomes a tornado (Jack Williams, USA TODAY Information Network). Most tornado's range from 300 to 2,000 feet in diameters, but have been reported to extremes of one mile. Tornado's usually travel in a southwest to northeast direction at about 30 knots in the U.S. According to Peter F. Lester tornado's lifetime average only for a few minutes, but have been documented to last over three hours. In the United States there is one particular place that seems to be more prominent to have tornado's form. The American Meteorology Society's Glossary of Weather and Climate defines Tornado Alley as: The area of the United States in which tornadoes are most frequent. It encompasses the great lowland areas of the Mississippi, the Ohio, and lower Missouri River Valleys. According to USA today Depending on the time of year, the southern and northern borders of tornado alley extend from about central Texas to Nebraska and Iowa. This region is where tornadoes spin up most frequently and where most monster, mile-wide twisters roam. The question is why is this area so prime for tornado's to form? Thunderstorms thrive on lots of warm, humid air. And the rotating thunderstorms, called supercells, which spawn the biggest tornadoes, need low-level winds that shift direction and grow stronger just above the ground (USA weather). The Gulf of Mexico provides an abundance of tropical moisture blowi ng into the Plains on south and southeast winds. Meanwhile the higher and drier elevations of the Rockies allow a hot, dry layer of air to blow over the region from the southwest. (USA TODAY Chris Cappella USA weathers source). It's the unique combination of atmospheric parameters a large moisture supply, low-level wind shear, a drying and cooling middle atmosphere, and features such as the dryline and a convective cap that turn the Great Plains into a tornado alley. The conditions responsible for the cause of tornado's are basically wind from the west and moister that comes from the Gulf of Mexico. The clash of warm and cold air helps supply the humidity and energy needed. Winds from different directions high above the ground help supply more energy and also give the air the turning motion needed for tornadoes. The center of the tornado's vortex is a low-pressure area. As air rushes into the vortex, its pressure lowers, which cools the air. Cooling condenses water vapor in the air into the tornado's familiar funnel-shaped cloud. Although the air is rising in a tornado, the funnel itself grows from the cloud toward the ground as the tornado is forming. Tornadoes form in the air rising into a thunderstorm, in the updraft. The strongest tornadoes are often near the edge of the updraft, not far from where air is descending from the thunderstorms. (Jack Williams, USA TODAY Information Network). Some times tornado's can be mistaken for microburst. The difference between microburst and tornado's is that Air moves very rapidly upward around a tornado center. This distinguishes tornadoes from microburst, which often do tornado-like damage
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Themis the Goddess of Justice Justice is blind. Themis, in Greek mythology, was the personification of divine or natural law, order, and justice. Her name means justice. She was worshipped as a goddess in Athens. Themis was also credited with wisdom and foresight or prophecy (her sons name, Prometheus, means foresight), and with knowing secrets unknown even to Zeus. She was also known as a protector of the oppressed and a protector of hospitality. Law and Order? The law and order which Themis protected was in the sense of natural order or law, what was proper especially related to family or the community. Such customs were perceived as natural in origin, though would today be seen as cultural or social constructs. In Greek, themis referred to divine or natural law, while nomoi to laws created by people and communities. Images of Themis: Themis was depicted as a beautiful woman, sometimes blind with a bandage over her eyes, and holding a pair of scales in one hand, a sword or cornucopia in the other. A similar image was used for the Roman goddess Iustitia (Justitia or Lady Justice). The images of Themis or Lady Justice blindfolded is more common by the 16th century C.E.; seen as gifted with prophecy, thered be no need for her to be blindfolded. Nemesis and Themis shared a temple at Rhamnous. The idea was that when Themis (divine or natural law) was ignored, then Nemesis would go into action, as the goddess of retribution against those who committed hubris (arrogance) in rejecting divine law and order. Parentage of Themis: Themis was one of the Titans, a daughter of Uranus (the heavens) and Gaia (the earth). Offspring of Themis: Themis was a consort or wife of Zeus after Metis. Their offspring were the Fates (Moirai or Moerae or Parcae) and the Hours (Horae) or Seasons. Some myths also identify as their offspring Astraea (another personification of justice), nymphs of the Eridanus River, and the Hesperides. By her Titan husband Iapetus, Themis was said to be the mother of Prometheus (foresight), and she gave him the knowledge that helped him to escape the punishment of Zeus. (In some myths, the mother of Prometheus was Clymene.) Dike, another goddess of justice, said to be one of the daughters of Themis, in early Greek depictions would carry out the decisions of the Fates, decisions which were above the influence even of the gods. Themis and Delphi Themis followed her mother Gaia in occupying the Oracle at Delphi. Some say that Themis originated the Oracle. Themis eventually turned over the Delphic office some say to her sister Phoebe, others say to Apollo. Themis and the First Humans In Ovids telling, Themis helped Deucalion and Pyrrha, the first human beings, learn how to re-populate the earth after the great worldwide flood. Apples of the Hesperides In the story of Perseus, Atlas refused to help Perseus because Themis had warned Atlas that Zeus would try to steal the golden apples of the Hesperides.
Friday, February 14, 2020
The Historical Development of the Educational System of Tanzania And How It Works Today - Essay Example This essay stresses that after the Second World War, the British initiated the capitalist movement in the hope that mass education would stimulate the community development. Literacy provided was only to the extent that farming would increase. Post independence, the situation changed to a great deal, in which Julius Nyerere had a very significant role to play. This essay would examine the changes in the educational system, the contribution of Nyerere, the positive and negative aspects of Swahili, and the importance of English in the Tanzania educational system. This paper makes a conclusion that private investment is necessary to foster a learning environment which would help in imparting both knowledge and technology. Even it is the agricultural sector, advanced technology can help reap the maximum benefits. The education sector has hitherto suffered due to poor resource allocation. External finance would be required to cover the shortfalls that would enable the government to fulfil its goals. The World Bank, the EU, the Netherlands, SIDA, JICA, Ireland Aid, GTZ, Finland, Norway, and CIDA are all contributing to the primary education sub-sector (Riddell). What is required is the recruitment and upgradation of teachers, trained administrative and financial managers to run the school, and empowerment of school committees. Complementary basic education today functions to absorb the absorb the out-of-school, over-age children but its role has to be enhanced.
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Analyzing Stories Assignmrnt - Essay Example With the incessant teaching of Miss Moore about facts of life regarding the poor and the rich, Sugar, one of the students came to realize her point during this trip where she reckoned that not even all of their money for their food in year cannot be summed up to buy the toy boat they saw in the store. Although the storyteller was quite annoyed at the conversation, the irony in the story is expressed at the end where she turned out to be the more serious type of a person who was struck with the exchange of ideas. Sylvia decided to be alone so she could think about what happened through the day while Sugar who seemed to be more reflective, turned out to be more concerned of where they were going to spend the change of Miss Moore that she never asked. Most of the characters in the story are static, showing no change in their personalities. For instance, Mercedes presented herself to be the more affluent among them, telling them about what she has and what she could have if she asks her dad to buy things for her. Rosie Giraffe on the other hand has always been the troublemaker, being reckless in her actions and words, waiting for a chance to get to whoever gets caught in her trap. The same is true with the other minor characters that are not the focus in the story but seemed to have been used as standards to differentiate the other characters. Sugar is a flat character because although there was no change in her, there was a time in the story that she became reflective and showed signs of becoming a round character. However, the end of the story reveals that she did not seriously consider her thought that might have changed her life and character. On the hand, where Sugar left her reflections, the main character picked her senses. Sylvia is a dynamic character showing a change in behavior towards the end of the story, taking time to herself to reflect on the things that happened that day. She, from the beginning of the story showed
Friday, January 24, 2020
Nursing Homes and The Lutheran Home for the Aging Recently, I had the pleasure of having a personal tour of the Lutheran Home for the Aging located in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin. I chose this area of study because it happened to be convenient in location for me as well as easily accessible to a source of an interviewee that I felt comfortable with and who is also very comfortable with myself. I find it much easier to conduct an interview and get more relevant information from a source that I've already had former contact with and also established a friendship with. I interviewed, age 48, who was a social worker at the Lutheran Home for the Aging for 12 years until she changed career paths that would benefit herself more as well as her family. graduated from the University of with a Social Work degree and is presently pursing a two year Dental Hygiene degree(Associate Degree). She explained to me that at the time she was hired at the nursing home it was not necessary for social workers to have to take a test in order to obtain a license and a position in the social work field, a position that she held for twelve years explained to me how she was "Grandfathered" into her social worker position and did not have to take a test for a license until it was required after years of responsible and professional work in the Home for the Aging. The Lutheran Home for the Aging was founded in 1906 by John C. Koch, with the motivation and desire to promote residential care for his fellow aging Lutheran constituents. Along with the supportive interests of other Lutherans, he purchased approximately eight acres of land. A large house on the property served as the Home's first building and within a year of its founding, it had reached a capacity of twenty members. Today the same desire and motivation has increased the residential population to 313 members, age 65 and over. The founders of the Home did more than provide a place to live for the Aging. They founded a tradition of excellence and quality care that continues even to this day. The mission of the home is to "take a leadership role in resident satisfaction by providing superior services in a Christian atmosphere that meet or exceed the expectations of each resident and his or her family" ("Lutheran Home for the Aging" 1). Through th... ...am B. "Journal of the American Geriatrics Society." Online. Internet. Available http://www.wwilkins.com/wavcat- bin/journals_ops/ID0856948/0002-8614/prod. "Code of Ethics." Online. Internet. Available http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/Ã¢â¬ ¦tml#Ethical Duties and Obligations. Lutheran Home for the Aging. Wauwatosa: Lutheran Home for the Aging, 1996. "Long-Term Care and Nursing Homes." Online. Internet. Available http://freenet.uchsc.edu/2000/senior/nurshome/menu.html. "Nursing Home, Home Health and Hospice." Online. Internet. Available http://www.math.utah.edu/~c-pkse/medfile/hhh.html. "Nursing Homes and Long Term Care Facilities." Online. Internet. Available http://www.medaccess.com/locator/nursehome/nsgh01.htm. Sager, M. Measurement of Activities of Daily Living in Hospitalized Elderly: A Comparison of Self-report and Performance-based measures. Wisconsin: Geriatric Society, 1992. 457-462. "Senior Care Insurance, Medicare, Medicaid." Online. Internet. Available http://seniors-site.com/ads/medicare.html. Lutheran Home for the Aging: "A warm, caring place where life always has quality, value and dignity."
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new technology for making images of the brain and other parts of the body. The technique depends on detection of a phenomenon called nuclear magnetic resonance, and also sometimes called NMR scanning. The discovery and development of MRI imaging is one of the most spectacular and successful events in the history of medical imaging. The nuclei of some atoms in the body are composed of numbers of nuclear particles. Such nuclei can be detected by sending weak energy signals through very strong magnetic fields. The MRI machine consists of a set of powerful magnets and a source of energy in the same general range used for broadcasting radio. The radio signal is affected in predictable ways by the number of odd-numbered nuclei in its path (Oldendorf; Boller, Grafman and Robertson). The MRI Procedure The MRI contains the massive main magnet, which is always on. The unit structure is approximately six or seven feet high and equally wide. As a patient, you will lie on your back on a special table that slides into the magnet through a two-foot-wide tunnel in the middle of the machine. Whether you go in head or feet first depends on the tissue being imaged. Be prepares for a loud knocking noise; this is not a silent machine. The loud knocking noise is caused by the gradients (small magnets) expanding against the supporting brackets. The MRI scanner will able to pick out voxels (three-dimensional cubes) maybe only one millimeter on each side. It will make a two-dimensional or three-dimensional map of tissue type. The computer will integrate this information and create two dimensional images (the usual) or three-dimensional models. The whole procedure takes from 30-60 minutes (Moe). Advantages and Disadvantages Due to the nature of the magnetic probe used in MRI, this technique possesses several fundamental advantages: 1) tissue can be characterized in a number of ways, 2) any plane can be imaged 3) bone is invisible, so all anatomic regions can be examined, and harper images are produced 4) no contrast medium is required and 5) there is no ionizing radiation, which makes it safe for children and for repeated scanning of the same person 6) the level of detailed exceeds the detail of other imaging techniques. At the present time, there are also several disadvantages 1) he complexity and high cost 2) the long scan time, 3) the noise isolation experienced by patient during scan and 4) the exclusion of substantial fraction of patients dues to pacemakers, metallic artifacts, and inability to cooperate. Furthermore, magnetic strength can be a dangerous thing. Stories abound the magnetÃ¢â¬â¢s power to pull metal objects (such as paper clips, keys, scissors, stethoscopes, IV poles, and even oxygen tanks) toward the patient and into the machine. Even worse, accidents have occurred with metal inside a patient. After an MRI, a metal worker went blind because the magnet moved microscopic metal particles in his eyes, damaging their surrounding structures. A survivor of and aneurysm died during an MRI because the magnet tore off the metal clips holding together a blood vessel in her brain, causing her to bleed to death. The patient must stay absolutely motionless during the procedure. (Minor motion does not have as much impact on a CT scan.) Therefore, a sedative is often necessary for a child having an MRI scan. The first three of these are under active development, and improvement can be expected. However, gradient coil noise, pacemakers and metallic artifacts are more fundamental problems for which solutions are not yet apparent (Stergiopoulos). MRI in association with CT Magnetic resonance imaging is another method for displaying anatomy in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. The slice thickness of the images vary between 1 and 10 mm. MRI is especially good for coronal and sagittal imaging, whereas axial imaging is the forte of CT. One of the main strengths of MRI is its ability to detect small changes (contrast) within soft tissues, and MRI soft tissue contrast is better than that found in CT images and radiographs. CT and MR imaging modalities are digital-cased technologies that require computers to convert digital information to shades of black, white and gray. The major difference in the two technologies is that in MRI the patient is exposed o external magnetic fields and radio frequency waves, whereas the patient is exposed to x-rays during a CT study. The magnetic fields used in MRI are believed to be harmless. MR scanning can be a problem for people who are prone to develop claustrophobia because they are surrounded by a tunnel-like structure for approximately 30-45 minutes. The external appearance of an MRI scanner or machine is similar to a CT scanner with the exception that the opening is the MR gantry is more tunnel-like. As in CT, the patient is comfortably positioned supine, prone, or decubitus on a couch. The couch moves only when examining the extremities. The patient hears and feels a jackhammer-like thumping while the study is in progress. The underlying physics of MRI is complicated and strange-sounding terms proliferate. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s keep it simple: MRI is essentially the imaging of protons. The most commonly imaged proton is hydrogen, as it is abundant in the human body and is easily manipulated by a magnetic field. However other nuclei can be imaged. Because the hydrogen proton has a positive charge and is constantly spinning at a fixed frequency, called the spin frequency, a small magnetic field with a north and south pole surrounds the proton. Remember that moving charged particles creates a surrounding magnetic field. Thus, these hydrogen protons act like magnets and align themselves within an external magnetic field or the needle of a compass. In the MR scanner, or magnet, short bursts of radio frequency waves are broadcast into the patient from radio transmitters. The broadcast radio wave frequency is the same as the spin frequency of the proton being imaged (hydrogen in this case). The hydrogen protons absorb the broadcast radio wave energy and become energized, or resonate. Hence, the term magnetic resonance. Once the radio-frequency wave broadcast is discontinued, the protons revert or decay back to their normal or steady state that existed prior to the radio wave broadcast. As the hydrogen protons decay back to their normal state or relax, they continue to resonate and broadcast radio waves that can be detected by a radio wave receiver set to the same frequency as the broadcast waves and the hydrogen proton spin frequency. The intensity of the radio wave signal detected by the receiver coil indicates the numbers and locations of the resonating hydrogen protons. Although human anatomy is always the same no matter what the imaging modality, the appearances of anatomic structures are very different on MR and CT images. Sometimes it is difficult for the beginner to differentiate between a CT and an MR image. The secret is to look to the fat. If the subcutaneous fat is black, it is a CT image as fat appears black on studies that use x-rays. If the subcutaneous fat is white (high-intensity signal), then it has to be an MR. next, look to the bones. Bones should have a gray medullary canal and a white cortex on radiographs and CT images. The medullary canal contains bone marrow, and the gray is due to the large amount of fat in bone marrow. On a MR image, nearly all of the bone appears homogenously white as the bone marrow is fat that emits a high-intensity signal and appears white. Also, on MR the cortex of the bone will appear black (dark or low intensity signal), whereas on CT images the cortex is white. Soft tissues and organs appear as shades of gray on CT and MR. Air appears black on CT and MR. air appears black on CT and has a low-intensity signal (black or dark) on MR (Moe). Intraoperative MRI At present, MRI is, by far, the most useful imaging modality for visualizing intracerebral tumors. It provides the most clear, detailed, and comprehensive diagnostic information regarding the tumor ad surrounding normal structures. The introduction of MRI and image-guided technology into the operating room thus allows the surgeon to use high-quality, current image data that reflect the surgical reality of brain tissue deformations and shifts that occur after the bone flap has been turned, the dura opened, and the resection begun. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s intraoperative MRI systems can be classified into two main groups: 1) the high field strength systems and 2) the low compact systems. Both types of systems have advantages and disadvantages. The high-field strength systems (0.5-1.5 T) are typically mounted on a stationary gantry and have gradient capabilities sufficient to produce full head images of quality comparable to that of diagnostic MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging can satisfy these requirements for therapy. It has excellent anatomic resolution for targeting, high sensitivity for localizing tumors, and temperature sensitivity for online treatment monitoring. Several MRI parameters are temperature sensitive; the one based on the proton resonance frequency allows relatively small temperature elevations to be detected prior to any irreversible tissue damage. Thus, the location of the focus can be detected at relatively low powers, and the accuracy of targeting can be verified. In addition, using calibrated temperature-sensitive MRI sequences, focal temperature elevations and effective thermal doses may be estimated. Such thermal quantification allows for online feedback to ensure that the treatment is safe, by assuring that the focal heating is confined to the target volume and below the level for boiling. Thermal assessment predicts effectiveness by assuring that the temperature history is sufficient to ensure thermal coagulation (Moore and Zouridakis). Conclusion Since the first availability of commercial instruments at the beginning of the 1980s, clinical MR has expanded rapidly in terms of both medical applications and the number of units installed. First considered to be expensive method to create images of inferior quality, it has since established itself as a clinical tool for diagnosis in previously inconceivable applications, and the potential of the method is still not exhausted. MRI has led to the first-scale industrial application of superconductivity and has brought about a grater public awareness of a physical effect previously known only to a handful of scientists. Up to now, the growth and spectrum of applications of MR have exceeded all predictions. The most recent development is that of rendering brain functions visible. Cardiac MR can display coronaries and analyze perfusion of the myocardium and hemodynamics of the heart. Thus, MRI is entering the domain of nuclear medicine. An interesting new application of MRI is its use as an imaging modality during minimal invasive procedures such as ablation, interstitial laser therapy, or high intensity focused ultrasound. With temperature-sensitive sequences, the development of temperature and tissue damage can be checked during heating and destroying of diseased tissue. The sensitivity of MRI to flow helps the physician to stay away from vessels during an intervention. MRI is also used for image-guided surgery, e.g., resection of tumors in the brain. Special open systems have been designed for such purposes, and dedicated non magnetic surgery tools have already been developed (Erkonen and Smith). Works Cited: Boller, FranÃ §ois, Jordan Grafman, and Ian H. Robertson. Handbook of Neuropsychology. Vol. 9. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2003. Erkonen, William E., and Wilbur L. Smith. Radiology 101: The Basics and Fundamentals of Imaging. 2nd ed. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004. Moe, Barbara A. The Revolution in Medical Imaging. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003. Moore, James E., and George Zouridakis. Biomedical Technology and Devices Handbook. New York: CRC Press, 2004. Oldendorf, William. Basics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Boston: Springer, 1988. Stergiopoulos, Stergios. Advanced Signal Processing Handbook: Theory and Implementation for Radar Ã¢â¬ ¦ New York: CRC Press, 2001. Ã Ã
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Libya is a democracy, but one with an extremely fragile political order, where the muscle of armed militias often supersedes the authority of the elected government. Libyan politics is chaotic, violent, and contested between rival regional interests and military commanders who have been vying for power since the fall of Col. Muammar al-QaddafiÃ¢â¬â¢s dictatorship in 2011. System of Government: Struggling Parliamentary Democracy The legislative power is in the hands of the General National Congress (GNC), an interim parliament mandated with adopting a new constitution which would pave the way for fresh parliamentary elections. Elected in July 2012 in the first free polls in decades, the GNC took over from the National Transitional Council (NTC), an interim body that governed Libya after the 2011 uprising against QaddafiÃ¢â¬â¢s regime.Ã The 2012 elections were largely hailed as fair and transparent, with a solid 62% voter turnout. Theres no doubt that a majority of Libyans embrace democracy as the best model of government for their country. However, the shape of the political order remains uncertain. The interim parliament is expected to select a special panel that will draft a new constitution, but the process has stalled over deep political divisions and endemic violence. With no constitutional order, the powers of the prime minister are constantly questioned in parliament. Worse, state institutions in the capital Tripoli are often ignored by everyone else. The security forces are weak, and large parts of the country are effectively ruled by armed militias. Libya serves as a reminder that building a democracy from scratch is a tricky task, particularly in countries emerging from civil conflict. Libya Divided QaddafiÃ¢â¬â¢s regime was heavily centralized. The state was run by a narrow circle of QaddafiÃ¢â¬â¢s closest associates, and many Libyans felt that other regions were being marginalized in favor of the capital Tripoli. The violent end of QaddafiÃ¢â¬â¢s dictatorship brought an explosion of political activity, but also a resurgence of regional identities. This is most obvious in the rivalry between western Libya with Tripoli, and eastern Libya with the city of Benghazi, considered the cradle of the 2011 uprising. The cities that rose against Qaddafi in 2011 have grabbed a measure of autonomy from the central government they are now loath to give up. Former rebel militias have installed their representatives in key government ministries, and are using their influence to block decisions they see as detrimental to their home regions. Disagreements are often resolved by the threat or (increasingly) the actual use of violence, cementing obstacles to the development of a democratic order. Key Issues Facing LibyaÃ¢â¬â¢s Democracy Centralized State vs. Federalism: Many politicians in the oil-rich eastern regions are pushing for strong autonomy from the central government to ensure that the bulk of oil profits are invested in local development. The new constitution will have to address these demands without rendering the central government irrelevant.The Threat of Militias: The government has failed to disarm former anti-Qaddafi rebels, and only a strong national army and police can force the militias to integrate into the state security forces. But this process will take time, and there are real fears that growing tensions between heavily-armed and well-funded rival militias could trigger a fresh civil conflict.Dismantling the Old Regime: Some Libyans are pushing for a wide-ranging ban that would bar Qaddafi-era officials from holding government office. The advocates of the law, which includes prominent militia commanders, say they want to prevent the remnants of QaddafiÃ¢â¬â¢s regime from staging a comeback . But the law could easily be abused to target political opponents. Many leading politicians and experts could be banned from holding government jobs, which would raise political tension and affect the work of government ministries.